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About the composition of wireless sensor networks

by:Rika Sensors     2021-11-16
About the composition of wireless sensor networks
WSN (wireless sensor networks) is a wireless sensor network, which is composed of a large number of sensor nodes with perceptual capabilities through self-organization. Sensors monitor physical or environmental conditions (such as temperature, sound, vibration, pressure, movement, or pollutants) at different locations. The development of wireless sensor networks originally originated from military applications such as battlefield monitoring. Nowadays, wireless sensor networks are used in many civilian fields, such as environmental and ecological monitoring, health monitoring, home automation, and traffic control.

A typical wireless sensor network system architecture includes distributed wireless sensor nodes (groups), receiver-transmitter convergence nodes, Internet or communication satellites, and task management nodes, as shown in the figure below. A large number of sensor nodes are randomly deployed in or near the monitoring area and can form a network through self-organization. The data monitored by a sensor node is transmitted hop by hop along other sensor nodes. During the transmission, the monitoring data may be processed by multiple nodes, routed to the sink node after multiple hops, and finally reach the management node through the Internet or satellite. The user configures and manages the sensor network through the management node, releases monitoring tasks and collects monitoring data.

Wireless sensor networks mainly include two types of nodes:

Sensor nodes: nodes with sensing and communication functions, which are responsible for monitoring the target area and obtaining data in the sensor network, as well as completing communication with other sensor nodes. Able to perform simple processing on data.

Sink node: also known as base station node, responsible for summarizing the data sent by the sensor node, and performing further data fusion and other operations, and finally uploading the processed data to the Internet.

Sink node

The processing capacity, storage capacity and communication capacity of the sink node are relatively strong. It is the gateway connecting the sensor network and the external network such as Internet, and realizes the conversion between the two protocols. Publish monitoring tasks from management nodes, and forward the data collected by WSN to the external network. The sink node can be a sensor node with enhanced functions. It has enough energy supply and more. All information in Flash and SRAM is transmitted to the computer. Through the assembly software, the acquired information can be easily converted into assembly. File format, so as to analyze confidential information such as the program code, routing protocol and key stored in the sensor node, and at the same time, the program code can be modified and loaded into the sensor node.

Management node

The management node is used to dynamically manage the entire wireless sensor network: the owner of the sensor network accesses the resources of the wireless sensor network through the management node.

Topology structure of wireless sensor network

Three common topologies

Star topology: simple networking and low cost; but the network coverage is small, once the sink node fails, all the The communication between the sensor node connected to the node and the network center will be interrupted. When the star topology structure is used for networking, the battery has a longer service life.

Mesh topology: It has the advantages of high network reliability and large coverage, but the battery life is short and the management is complicated.

Tree topology: It has some characteristics of star and mesh topology, which not only guarantees a large network coverage, but also prevents battery life from being too short, and is more flexible and efficient.

Characteristics of wireless sensor network

1. Self-organization; 2. Data-centric; 3. Application relevance; 4. Dynamic; 5. Large network scale; 6. Reliability

Wireless sensor network (WSN) is considered to be one of the important technologies affecting the future life of mankind. This emerging technology provides people with a new way to obtain and process information. Due to the characteristics of WSN itself, there is a big difference between it and the existing traditional network technology, which poses many new challenges to people.



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