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Application and error analysis of tipping bucket rain gauge
With the development of rain gauges, the ground observation system has gradually changed from manual monitoring in the past to automatic observation, and the accuracy of ground observation data has also been continuously improved. The large-scale application of rain gauges has led to an increase in the density of observation data, which satisfies the needs of scientific research and fine-grained weather forecasting, and greatly reduces the labor intensity of observers. At present, the instruments used by domestic weather stations to observe precipitation range from manual to automatic. There are mainly four types of manual observation rain gauges, tipping bucket rain gauges, siphon rain gauges, and weighing rain gauges. Due to the different detection methods and working principles of various precipitation observation equipment, the measured precipitation is also very different. Among the above four commonly used rain gauges, the tipping bucket rain gauge can be said to be a very representative device. Next, this article will take the tipping bucket rain gauge as an example to explain the precipitation intensity and measurement methods. Errors, errors caused by improper installation and maintenance of equipment and equipment, and errors caused by natural conditions, analyze the causes of errors in the rain gauge, and analyze the processing methods for abnormal data. Tipping bucket rain gauge The principle of tipping bucket rain gauge is mainly that rainwater enters the water receiver from the uppermost rain port, falls into the diversion funnel, flows into the tipping bucket through the funnel mouth, and when the water accumulation reaches a certain height (For example, 0.1 mm), the tipping bucket will lose its balance and tip over; when the water is poured out, as the rain continues, the tipping bucket will turn left and right. Read the precipitation data on the clock, so that the rainfall process can be measured back and forth. Three common errors of rain gauges 1. Errors caused by precipitation intensity and measurement methods The tipping bucket rain gauge measures the rainfall by the number of times of tipping, but when the rainfall intensity suddenly increases, due to The tipping bucket requires reaction time, which causes another tipping bucket to be filled with water before turning over, causing measurement errors. The resulting measurement errors are positively correlated with rain intensity. According to the linear relationship of the large error when the rainfall intensity is large, after careful analysis, the reason may be that when the rainfall intensity is high, the water flow into the metering bucket will be very fast, which causes the water When it is not exhausted, rainwater flows into the measuring tipping bucket again, which makes the metering tipping bucket return to its original position. In this way, the amount of rain flowing into the metering tipping bucket is less than 0.1 mm, resulting in that the amount of water measured by the tipping bucket rain gauge is greater than the actual amount of precipitation. And because the water was not exhausted, the water volume of the metering bucket quickly reached the equivalent rainfall of 0.1mm, so that it flipped again to form a continuous jump phenomenon, resulting in errors. According to the measurement standard of the tipping bucket rain gauge, the error caused by this situation is generally within the allowable range of 4%. 2. Errors caused by improper installation and maintenance of equipment and equipment Through the comparison of various rain gauge data, it is found that the value of the tipping bucket measurement is obviously too large if the tipping bucket nut is loose, even exceeding the allowable range of 4% , The data is not available. On the contrary, the friction of the rotating shaft and the influence of water or sand on the tipping bucket will prevent the tipping bucket from turning, resulting in a small value. This kind of error is inevitable. Therefore, in addition to regular maintenance of the equipment, we also need to summarize and analyze the data after the precipitation to find the reason for the error, and adjust it in time to ensure the availability of the next data. . 3. Errors caused by natural conditions The errors caused by the natural environment are rather helpless. The spatial distribution of precipitation is uneven, and various rainfall measuring instruments are placed in the observation field to a certain extent. Distance, when the precipitation is obviously uneven, the measurement results of the rain gauges will also appear inconsistent. In modern life, rain gauges, as the main instrument for monitoring rainfall, play an important role in meteorology, agriculture, water conservancy and other industries. At the same time, rain gauges will also be due to weather, equipment itself, daily maintenance and other reasons. In order to obtain accurate values, we must pay attention to these problems when using the equipment.
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