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Application and principle of gas sensor

by:Rika Sensors     2021-10-17


The gas detector can be described as an extension of the gas sensor application. If the gas detector is compared to a carriage, then the gas sensor is the horse that pulls the carriage. The gas detector is based on the gas sensor. According to the different principles of the gas sensor, a variety of different types of gas detectors are extended. These gas detectors are widely used in petroleum, chemical, steelmaking, metallurgy, electric power, environmental protection and other industries to protect people's lives and health and safety.












According to the principle of gas sensor, gas detectors can be divided into the following 5 categories:







1) Semiconductor principle: It is manufactured by the principle that the conductivity of the metal oxide semiconductor material changes at a specific temperature due to the adsorption of gas.







Advantages: The cost is low, and it can be widely used in civil gas alarms. High-quality can meet the needs of industrial testing.







Disadvantages: It is greatly affected by the environment and poor stability.







Effective measurement: methane, ethane, propane, butane, alcohol, formaldehyde, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, ethylene, acetylene, vinyl chloride, styrene, acrylic acid and other gases.







2) Catalytic combustion principle: It is the principle of using the heat generated by the combustion of combustible gas to increase the temperature of the platinum wire coil and produce resistance changes. The concentration value of combustible gas is obtained according to the magnitude of the resistance change.







Advantages: fast response, good linearity, low cost, long life span up to 3 to 5 years.







Disadvantages: Due to its own catalytic combustion principle, it is forbidden to be used in explosive places, otherwise serious consequences will occur.







Effective measurement: low-concentration combustible gas.







3) Infrared principle: The characteristic and absorption peak are formed by the different absorption degree of the measured gas for infrared rays. The concentration of the combustible gas can be obtained through the current on the infrared photosensitive device.







Advantages: suitable for almost all places, long life span is generally 3 to 5 years.







Disadvantages: higher cost.







Effective measurement: high-concentration combustible gas, suitable for flammable and explosive places.







4) Electrochemical principle: It uses the reducing and oxidizing properties of the gas to be measured. During the chemical reaction, electrons are formed, released and absorbed, and a large number of electrons form a current, and the size of the current is related to the concentration of the gas to be measured. By using these reactions, the gas composition and concentration can be distinguished.







Advantages: stable performance, good measurement linearity.







Disadvantages: shorter life span and higher maintenance cost. In the general environment, the life of the gas sensor is about 1 to 2 years. If the environment is bad, it may need to be replaced every 3 to 6 months.







Effective measurement: the vast majority of toxic and harmful gases.







5) Principle of PID photoionization: Use high-energy ultraviolet light to ionize the gas to be measured, and form current on the electrode plate, and the gas concentration can be obtained by the size of the current.







Advantages: fast response, high sensitivity, and the measurement unit reaches the ppb level.







Disadvantages: high cost, relatively expensive sensors.







Effective measurement: most of the VOC, that is, volatile gas.







When selecting a gas detector, it is necessary to confirm the main gas components in the environment to be detected, whether it is flammable gas, toxic gas or other, so that you can equip a suitable gas detector according to the gas that needs to be detected. At present, the gas detectors on the market have developed in the direction of portable and composite, that is, the gas detectors have both mobility and multiple gas detection functions, so that the gas detectors can be targeted at more complex detection environments to meet safety Demand.


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