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Application of wind speed and direction sensor in wind power industry

by:Rika Sensors     2021-08-31

In today's general environment, resource shortages and environmental degradation have become very prominent problems throughout the country. How to rationally develop and utilize renewable energy has become a hot topic of widespread concern. Wind energy has great development potential as a pollution-free renewable energy. The wind industry has become a very mature and promising industry in the field of new energy. At the same time, wind speed and direction sensors and ultrasonic wind speed and direction sensors have also been widely used.

1. Application of wind speed and direction sensorsWind speed and direction sensors are widely used in wind power generation; the kinetic energy of the wind is converted into mechanical kinetic energy, and then the mechanical energy is converted into electric kinetic energy, which is wind power generation. The principle of wind power generation is to use the wind to drive the windmill blades to rotate, and then increase the speed of rotation through a speed increaser to promote the generator to generate electricity.Although the wind power generation process is extremely environmentally friendly, the insufficient stability of wind power generation makes wind power generation more expensive than other energy sources. Therefore, it is necessary to control the wind power generation well to obtain the limit power generation power by following the changes in the wind. In order to reduce costs, it is necessary to accurately and timely measure the wind direction and wind speed in order to control the wind turbines accordingly; in addition, the location of wind farms also requires an advance prediction of the wind speed and direction to provide a reasonable analysis basis. Therefore, the use of wind speed and direction sensors to accurately measure wind parameters is very important in wind power generation.

2. Principle of wind speed and direction sensor

2.1. Mechanical wind speed and direction sensor
Mechanical wind speed and direction sensor is divided into two types of equipment: wind speed sensor and wind direction sensor due to the mechanical shaft.p>Wind speed sensorThe mechanical structure of the wind speed sensor is a sensor that can continuously measure wind speed and air volume (air volume u003d wind speed × cross-sectional area). The more common wind speed sensor is the wind cup type wind speed sensor. According to legend, the sensor was first invented by Robinson in the UK. The measuring part is composed of three or four hemispherical wind cups. The wind cups are installed on a rotating support vertical to the ground at equal angles along one direction.Wind direction sensorThe wind direction sensor detects and senses the wind direction information from the outside by the rotation of the wind direction arrow, and transmits it to the coaxial encoder, and at the same time outputs a physical device corresponding to the wind direction related value; its main body adopts The mechanical structure of the wind vane, when the wind blows to the tail of the wind vane, the arrow of the wind vane will point to the direction of the wind. In order to maintain sensitivity to the direction, different internal mechanisms are also used to identify the direction for the wind speed sensor.

2.2. Ultrasonic wind speed and direction sensor
The working principle of ultrasonic is to use the ultrasonic time difference method to measure wind speed and direction. Due to the propagation speed of sound in the air, it will be superimposed with the airflow speed in the wind direction. If the propagation direction of the ultrasonic wave is the same as the wind direction, then its speed will increase; conversely, if the propagation direction of the ultrasonic wave is opposite to the wind direction, then its speed will slow down. Therefore, under fixed detection conditions, the speed of ultrasonic propagation in the air can correspond to the wind speed function. The precise wind speed and direction can be obtained by calculation. As the sound wave propagates in the air, its speed is greatly affected by temperature; the wind speed sensor detects two opposite directions on the two channels, so the effect of temperature on the sound wave speed is negligible.Wind speed and direction sensors, as an indispensable part of wind power development, directly affect the reliability and power generation efficiency of wind turbines, and also directly affect the profit, profitability, and satisfaction of the wind power industry. At present, most wind power plants are located in places with harsh natural environments in the wild. The environment with low temperature and high sand and dust has strict requirements on the working temperature and flexural resistance of the system. The existing mechanical products are slightly lacking in this respect. For this reason, ultrasonic wind speed and direction sensors may have broad application prospects in the wind power industry.

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