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Application of Wireless Sensor Network in Environmental Monitoring

by:Rika Sensors     2021-09-21
Application of Wireless Sensor Network in Environmental Monitoring
In recent years, with the rapid development of wireless sensor network technology, people have put forward higher requirements for environmental protection and environmental supervision. More and more enterprises and institutions are committed to applying wireless sensor network technology in environmental monitoring systems . Judging from the actual effects of wireless sensor networks, wireless sensor network technology is undoubtedly playing an increasingly important role in promoting economic and social development, promoting the modernization of national governance systems and governance capabilities, and meeting the people's growing needs for a better life.

One, what is a wireless sensor network?

Wireless sensor network is a form of network formed by freely organizing and combining tens of thousands of sensor nodes through wireless communication technology. The units constituting the sensor node are: a data acquisition unit, a data transmission unit, a data processing unit, and an energy supply unit.

The data acquisition unit usually collects and converts the information in the monitoring area, such as light intensity, atmospheric pressure and humidity, etc.;

The data transmission unit mainly uses wireless communication and exchange of information, as well as sending and receiving those collected The incoming data is the main information;

The data processing unit usually deals with the routing protocols and management tasks of all nodes, as well as positioning devices, etc.;

In order to reduce the area occupied by the sensor nodes, the energy supply unit will choose micro-batteries. The form of composition.

There are two types of nodes in the wireless sensor network, one is the sink node and the other is the sensor node. The sink node mainly refers to that the gateway can eliminate the wrong report data among the sensor nodes, and combine the data with related reports to make judgments on the occurrence of events. The sink node and the user node can communicate directly with the help of a wide area network or satellite, and process the collected data.

2. Practical application of wireless sensor network

The application of wireless sensor network technology to environmental monitoring has changed the previous single-sensor fixed-point and timing measurement mode. Realize the multi-angle (various types of sensors), synchronous and continuous measurement of the observation object. Therefore, the data obtained is more comprehensive and representative, which is convenient for describing the spatial and temporal variation of the observation object and discovering its internal connection.

3. Requirements for wireless sensor nodes for environmental monitoring

Environmental monitoring sensors are usually installed in unattended areas outdoors, such as dust monitors, automatic weather stations and other sensor equipment, which transmit data outdoors At times, it is susceptible to interference and other signal attacks, causing system failures and affecting transmission efficiency. Therefore, in order to ensure the communication between sensor networks, it is necessary to put forward certain requirements on the sensor network nodes according to the detection environment.

1. Small size

The sensor network node should be small enough to ensure that it will not affect the target system itself. In some cases, it is even necessary for the node to be small enough to be unaware. Special tasks. Therefore, the size of the energy supply module of each node should also be small.

2. Strong environmental adaptability

As a sensor node for environmental monitoring, it is often placed in areas where the environment is harsh and inaccessible. Therefore, the node energy supply module needs to have strong environmental adaptability, mainly working temperature, water tightness and other indicators should meet the needs of use.

3. Stable discharge characteristics

With the development of chip manufacturing technology and sensor technology, the power consumption of node sensors, processors and wireless transceiver modules has been greatly reduced. Therefore, the requirements of the node on the instantaneous discharge capability of the power supply system are not very high, but the continuous discharge stability has a greater impact on the use and life of the system.

4. Low cost

Low cost is the basic requirement of sensor nodes. Only when the cost is low, can a large number of arrangements be made, so the power supply module cannot use expensive technical solutions.

5. Non-pollution

The nodes used in environmental monitoring are difficult and dangerous and the number is huge, so energy modules must adopt non-pollution or low-pollution technical solutions.



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