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Causes of lightning strikes on automatic weather stations and lightning protection measures
With the development of science and technology in our country, automatic weather stations have also been used more and more widely in the meteorological industry, and their number and operating time are also increasing. However, during the operation of the equipment, some problems have gradually been exposed, such as inadequate lightning protection measures in the field. In order to deal with this problem, we have proposed corresponding effective lightning protection measures according to different conditions. 1. Reasons for the weather station being struck by lightning1. Direct lightning strike The automatic weather station needs to be installed in the open field for a long time. Thunderstorms and lightning can directly act on the equipment and buildings of the automatic weather station Above, the destructive effect is relatively large. In a relatively long period of time, high-voltage electricity is generated and even sparks are triggered. Therefore, the damage caused by direct lightning strikes to automatic weather stations is devastating. 2. Electromagnetic induction generated by lightning After a lightning strike, the surrounding environment will generate a certain amount of electricity, and a strong magnetic field will be generated in an instant, the appearance of this magnetic field will interfere with the automatic weather station Related equipment is connected, thereby destroying automatic weather equipment. The electromagnetic induction generated by thunder and lightning produces powerful electrical energy that is transmitted along the wire to the two ends of the conductor, which in turn causes damage to the automatic weather station equipment. 3. Lightning wave intrusion In the process of lightning strikes, strong voltage and current waves will be generated. Although the lightning does not directly reach the automatic weather station equipment, it can be connected to the wire signal line, etc. Acting directly on meteorological equipment as a conductor, causing damage to the equipment. 4. Ground potential counterattack If the relevant weather equipment of the automatic weather station does not operate in accordance with the relevant regulations, for example, the ground network of the equipment does not comply with the regulations, it will directly cause the resistance of the electric connection to be too large , Once a lightning strike occurs, the powerful current cannot be released to the earth in a timely manner, which may cause damage to the equipment. 2. Measures to avoid lightning strikes in weather stations1. Install lightning protection facilities In order to ensure that the equipment of automatic weather stations is not subject to lightning strikes, some lightning protection grounding devices should be adopted to avoid lightning strikes. The equipment causes damage, such as installing lightning rods, lightning cables, lightning nets, lightning belts, etc. Of course, it is also possible to effectively prevent lightning induced hazards through grounding down conductors, grounding collection wires, and grounding bodies. This requires the selection of scientific and reasonable lightning protection measures based on the current geographic location of the multi-element automatic weather station and the local natural conditions. It is necessary to integrate local wind direction poles, rain gauges and other equipment into the underground network. It is necessary to ensure the safe distance between the two types of grounding bodies and the grounding wire. Once the safe distance is not reached, insulation facilities need to be arranged. 2. The lightning protection measures of the power supply system must be implemented. Because the energy of the lightning is relatively large during the release process, it can cause great high voltage damage to the circuit within two kilometers. Therefore, in the process of installing related equipment of multi-element automatic weather station, it is necessary to install related lightning protection devices for cables, metal pipes and data lines in the protection area, and make equipotential connections. 3. Install lightning rods In order to reduce the damage caused by direct lightning strikes, weather stations usually introduce current into the ground through facilities such as lightning rods and lightning protection nets. One of the most common ones is the lightning rod. Due to the special shape of the lightning rod, a large amount of electric charge will accumulate at the tip of the lightning rod. When lightning is formed, a capacitor with very small capacitance will be formed between the charged cloud layer and the tip of the lightning rod. When the lightning rod and the charged cloud layer are broken down, they will form a conductor together to introduce the current into the ground, and then use the grounding device to eliminate the damage caused by the direct lightning.
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