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How does the evaporation sensor monitor the water surface evaporation?
'Water surface evaporation' refers to the process by which water on the water surface changes from a liquid state to a gaseous state and escapes the water surface. Water surface evaporation includes two processes: water vaporization (also known as vaporization) and water vapor diffusion. Evaporation under natural conditions is a comprehensive reflection of moisture and heat. Generally speaking, the occurrence of evaporation depends on two conditions: one is the heat energy that turns water from liquid to gas; the other is whether there is water supply and the state of water supply. The factors that affect water surface evaporation include solar radiation, temperature, humidity, water vapor pressure difference, wind speed, water surface area, water depth, water quality and other factors. The calculation methods of water surface evaporation can be roughly divided into two categories: one is the theoretical calculation method, and the other is the empirical calculation method. The so-called theoretical calculation methods are methods with a strong physical basis, such as heat balance method, aerodynamic method and water balance method, etc. These calculation methods are respectively determined by the principles and theories of heat balance, aerodynamics and water balance Water surface evaporation. Theoretical calculation methods mainly include heat balance method, aerodynamic method, comprehensive method and water balance method. The empirical calculation method is generally a method for estimating water surface evaporation based on the measured data and using empirical formulas when the accuracy of the measured data is not very high. In addition, there is a more common method, that is, the instrumental method. The amount of water that evaporates from the water surface per unit time is called the water surface evaporation rate, in mm/day. Evaporation on the water surface can be determined by direct observation with instruments, or it can be estimated. The evaporation of large water bodies is determined by multiplying the evaporation measured by various evaporators by the conversion coefficient. The conversion factor varies with the size of the evaporator, the season and the climate zone. And now there is a more accurate measurement instrument, the evaporation sensor. Evaporation sensor is an instrument used to observe water surface evaporation, which can observe the change law of water surface evaporation in different time periods. It is suitable for meteorological observation, plant cultivation, seed cultivation, agriculture and forestry, geological survey, scientific research and other fields . It can be used with data collection and transmission devices to realize automatic monitoring of evaporation process, and can also be combined with data collection and storage devices (recorders) to realize automatic storage of evaporation data, and can also be used with rainfall sensors, data collection and transmission devices, etc. Use to realize automatic observation and remote transmission of evaporation and rainfall processes. What should be paid attention to when using the evaporation sensor? 1. In the actual observation, attention should be paid to the observation instrument. When the water level in the evaporation sensor is too high or too low, take water or add water in time to make the water level suitable. In order to avoid the loss of evaporation caused by heavy precipitation or excessive evaporation. When taking water or adding water, you should grasp the timing to reduce the error of evaporation. 2. In summer, the temperature is high, the wind speed is high, and the evaporation is large. Try to choose the time when the evaporation is small to fetch or add water. . 3. The water intake or addition should be just after the hour, because after the water intake or addition, the evaporation from the moment to the previous punctual point will be cleared, and the starting point of the evaporation for this hour will be calculated from the adjustment. 4. It is most suitable to take water or add water when the evaporation volume of this hour is zero in the real-time display column, which can reduce the evaporation error. 5. When the old evaporation is negative due to precipitation, the old evaporation at that time will be treated as 0. 0 6. When the winter freezes, the sensor should not be observed and the sensor should be removed. Keep it in a safe place and reinstall it after thawing. 7. The operation should be performed just after the punctuality when taking water or adding water. If you need to take water or add water temporarily for other reasons, in order to reduce the error, you can measure the evaporation volume once before and after adding water or add water, and the evaporation volume twice. The sum is the total evaporation in this hour. Although this kind of observation method can reduce the error of evaporation, if the operation is improper, it will produce a larger evaporation error, but the operation is more troublesome and should not be adopted under normal circumstances.
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