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Popular science: the development history and classification of weather stations
1. Development HistoryAs early as 1743, Western missionaries began to establish weather stations in Beijing, my country, to conduct meteorological observations. After the Opium War in 1840, the imperialist powers successively set up weather stations in towns and ports within their sphere of influence. After the 1911 Revolution of 1911, the Republic of China government established China’s own meteorological observatory, the Central Observatory, in Beijing in 1912. Since then, relevant departments and colleges of the Republic of China have gradually established weather stations and meteorological stations in various places. In 1945, the Communist Party of China established the first meteorological station in the liberated area in Yan'an, and some meteorological stations have also been established in the liberated areas in Northeast and North China. After the founding of New China in 1949, the construction of meteorological stations has entered a new historical period. In July 1999, my country introduced five sets of automatic weather stations from Finland and put them into operation. This is the first time that my country has used automatic weather stations as official observation data. It marks that my country's ground meteorological observation has entered a new milestone. At the same time, my country began to build the first batch of self-produced automatic weather stations in 1999, and they have been officially put into operation in January 2000. Subsequently, my country accelerated the construction of automatic weather stations. From 2000 to 2001, 32 automatic weather stations were built in Sichuan, Chongqing, Hunan and other places with the funds of the Three Gorges Project; 582 automatic weather stations were newly built in 2002; A total of 1,606 automatic weather stations (including mesoscale stations) have been put into operation in the national meteorological department. At the end of 2004, a total of 3548 automatic weather stations (including medium-scale stations) were put into operation in the national meteorological department. After 2005, it entered the popularization stage. In 2005, 3290 automatic weather stations were built. The proportion of self-funded automatic stations has greatly increased, and the automatic weather station network encryption speed is faster. The distribution density, observation quality and timeliness of China's meteorological stations have reached or exceeded the standards required by the World Meteorological Organization. Automatic weather stations have been operating in my country for many years, providing valuable meteorological data for meteorological observations, increasing the observation experience of meteorologists, and making great achievements for my country’s meteorological observations. With the popularization of automatic weather station applications, domestic automatic weather stations have also sprung up. 2. Classification of weather stations There are many automatic weather stations on the market at present, which are divided into: handheld weather station, vehicle-mounted weather station, wireless telemetry weather station, wired Telemetry weather station, portable weather station, ultrasonic integrated weather station. 1. Hand-held weather station: The hand-held weather station is the smallest weather station. It is composed of hand-held instruments and sensors, which is easy to carry. The measured data can be displayed directly on the spot. However, this kind of weather station generally does not have remote functions, and there are fewer sensors connected, and the connection cannot be expanded. 2. Vehicle-mounted weather station: This kind of weather station is a portable observation weather station specially designed for emergency environment detection equipment such as vehicles and ships. The number of connected sensors is relatively small. 3. Wireless telemetry weather station: The most advanced weather station at present is this kind of weather station. It uses the Internet of Things mode, GPRS data transmission mode, and uploads the data to the network platform. It is available at any time wherever there is a network. Log in to the platform to view the field data of the weather station. And it has the function of giving SMS warning and reminding, which can be extended to connect to many sensors. This kind of weather station is also called unmanned automatic weather station. 4. Wired telemetry weather station: This is the monitoring method of a traditional weather station. The sensing part and the receiving and processing part are separated by tens of meters to several kilometers, and wired communication circuits are used for transmission. It is the sensor that transmits the data to the PC through the connection data cable. This method is suitable for manned areas. 5. Portable weather station: It is suitable for monitoring the weather in the field, and directly transmits the data to the data collector. The data collector stores the data and goes to the field regularly. The biggest advantage of this kind of weather station is that it is convenient to move, and the cost is much lower. 6. Ultrasonic integrated weather station: This integrated weather station uses ultrasonic technology and has a built-in electronic compass device. There is no longer an orientation requirement during installation, and it only needs to be installed horizontally. It is suitable for use in mobile occasions such as marine ships and automobile transportation, and there is no direction requirement during installation. It can be widely used in environmental detection, integrating wind speed, wind direction, temperature and humidity, noise collection, PM2.5 and PM10, CO2, atmospheric pressure, and light. It is widely used to measure environmental temperature and humidity, noise, air quality, CO2, atmosphere Various occasions such as pressure and light.
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