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Popular Science | The Past and Present of the Electronic Water Gauge
In the long history of the Chinese nation, in order to develop and survive, people have constantly carried out great struggles to transform nature, such as building new water conservancy projects and preventing water damage. Because of the great disparity in hydrology across regions. Hydrological factors such as precipitation, runoff, and evaporation have changed greatly during the year, so the ancients paid much attention to hydrological forecasting a long time ago. The water level gauge is a gauge for observing the water level, and it is one of the necessary tools for hydrological work. The water level gauge has a very long history. It originated from the magnificent water management practices of mankind. The ancients remembered the ropes. A certain knot in the rope may record the water level of a certain flood. According to historical records, during the flood control of Dayu more than 4000 years ago, according to legend, Yu used the methods of 'following mountainsThis is the first survey of hydrology in Chinese history. Xu Shen said in 'Shuowen Jiezi' written in 100 AD that the word 'test' means 'the sound is from the deep to the water'. It can be seen that the 'measurement' is from the observation of the water level, and later the water gauge is called the 'water rule'. In the 3rd century BC, Li Bing of China set up a stone water gauge to observe the water level in the water diversion project of Dujiangyan in Sichuan. In the Sui Dynasty, the stone-man water ruler was changed to a wooden stake and a stone tablet-style water ruler. This inscription was called a water rule. Later, people invented a wooden rule of water fixed in the water. This is close to the vertical enamel water gauge used in modern hydrology. The stone fish was used as a water gauge in the Tang Dynasty. Today, the stone fish marking the low water level on the Baiheliang in Fuling, Chongqing are still clearly visible and lifelike. Baiheliang is located in the Yangtze River in the north of Fuling City in the upper reaches of the Three Gorges Reservoir of the Yangtze River. It is a natural giant stone beam island about 1,600 meters long and 16 meters wide. Before the impoundment of the Three Gorges Reservoir, from December to March of the following year, the Yangtze River was exposed to the surface when the water was dry. The ancients believed that when the water level of the Yangtze River fell to a certain position in winter, the next year must be a good harvest year, so they used the method of 'carving stone fish' to record the low water level of the Yangtze River. When a stone fish is exposed, it becomes a grand event. People gather on the river, carved stone records on the Baiheliang, and literati and ink guests also write poems and lyrics. The Baiheliang inscription was first inscribed in the first year of Guangde in the Tang Dynasty. There are 165 inscriptions with more than 30,000 characters and 18 stone fishes. Among them, there are 108 inscriptions involving hydrological value, which record a total of 1,200 years from the Tang Dynasty to 1963. The 72 dry years of the Yangtze River systematically reflect the law of water level changes in the middle and upper reaches of the Yangtze River in dry years, and provide a scientific basis for the transportation and water conservancy project construction of the Yangtze River waterway. Someone has done statistics. Since the Tang and Song Dynasties, there have been nearly 1,000 flood inscriptions distributed in the main and tributary streams of the Yangtze River. Of course, there are many inscriptions on the low water level of the Yangtze River. There are 11 sections in the upper reaches of the Yangtze River from Yichang to Chongqing, with 362 inscriptions. Later, the British, French and other imperialist powers successively invaded Shanghai. For their own navigation safety and various interests, they set up a number of hydrological survey stations on the Yangtze River, Huangpu River and other rivers, and set up water gauges and signal poles. , Hang the water mark. This is the earliest modern water gauge for observing the water level (tidal level) set in the Yangtze River system. At the end of the Qing Dynasty, foreign powers set up some customs water gauges. These are the earliest hydrological stations for water level observation using modern methods. The first water gauge in my country was established in 1865 at the Jianghanguan Hydrological Station in Wuhan. The development of science and technology and the emergence of electronic water gauges have made water gauges pass the era of manual monitoring. Nowadays, the water gauge family is very prosperous. Water gauges of various materials and shapes live by the water, spreading across the north and south of the river, and up and down the river. The electronic water level gauge is a new generation of digital sensor, which uses the principle of weak conductivity of water to measure the water level of the electrode to obtain data. The error will not be affected by environmental factors, but only depends on the electrode spacing. Long-term continuous automatic detection of water level, suitable for water level monitoring in rivers, lakes, reservoirs, hydropower stations, irrigation areas and water delivery projects, and municipal projects such as tap water, urban sewage treatment, and urban roads.
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