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Sensor knowledge: thermal resistance temperature sensor

by:Rika Sensors     2021-11-09
Sensor knowledge: thermal resistance temperature sensor
Temperature is a physical quantity closely related to human life and work. In order to better achieve work and life, we need to monitor it through equipment. So the temperature sensor came into being. Temperature sensor is a sensor that converts non-electricity temperature into electrical signal. There are many types of it. Commonly used are thermal resistance, thermocouple, integrated temperature sensor and so on. Today, the editor will take you to understand the thermal resistance sensor.

Thermal resistance

The thermal resistance temperature sensor is a kind of sensor thermometer that uses the principle that the resistance value of the conductor or semiconductor changes with the temperature to measure temperature. The thermal resistance can also be connected with a temperature transmitter. The temperature is converted into a standard current signal output to realize real-time monitoring of the ambient temperature. Thermal resistance temperature sensors are divided into two categories: metal thermal resistance and semiconductor thermistor.

1. Metal thermal resistance

The metal thermal resistance sensor uses the principle that the resistance value of a metal conductor changes with temperature to measure temperature. Metal thermal resistors are mostly made of pure metal materials. At present, the main materials used are platinum and copper. Thermal resistors can also be made of materials such as manganese, rhodium, and carbon.

(1)Platinum thermal resistance

Platinum thermal resistance is characterized by high temperature measurement accuracy and good stability. It is a good material for manufacturing thermal resistance. The working principle of the platinum resistance element is the principle that the resistance value of the platinum resistance wire changes accordingly under the action of temperature. It can be used to measure the temperature in the range of -200~800℃. Its advantages are: stable electrical performance, close to linear relationship between temperature and resistance, and high accuracy.

(2) Copper thermal resistance

Because platinum materials are expensive, copper is often used as thermal resistance material in general engineering surveys. The biggest advantage of copper is its low price, easy purification, and good linearity of temperature characteristics in the range of -50-150°C. The disadvantage is that the resistivity of copper is only a fraction of that of platinum. Therefore, the material used in copper thermal resistance is thin and long, with poor mechanical strength and large thermal inertia. It can be used at a temperature higher than 100°C or in an aggressive medium. When used, it is easy to oxidize and has poor stability. Therefore, the copper thermal resistance can only be used in media with low measurement accuracy and low temperature (below 100°C) and non-corrosive media.

2. Semiconductor thermistor

The semiconductor thermistor is abbreviated as thermistor, which is a new type of semiconductor temperature measuring element. The thermistor is made of some metal oxide or single crystal germanium, silicon, etc. Material, temperature sensing element made according to specific process. Thermistors can be divided into 3 types, namely, positive temperature coefficient (PTC) thermistors, negative temperature coefficient (NTC) thermistors, and critical temperature resistors (CTR) whose resistance value changes at a certain temperature. . The most commonly used thermistor at present is the NTC type thermistor. The thermistor is different from the metal thermal resistance ratio in the following points.

①The temperature coefficient of the thermistor is much larger than that of the metal thermal resistance, so the sensitivity of the semiconductor thermometer is very high.

②At the same temperature, the resistance of the thermistor is much greater than that of the metal thermal resistance. Therefore, the resistance of the connecting wire has very little influence on the measurement error, which is suitable for long-distance measurement.

③The non-linearity of the thermistor's temperature curve is quite serious, so its measuring temperature range is much smaller than that of metal thermal resistance, generally 50-300℃.

④ The performance of the semiconductor thermistor is not stable enough, the interchangeability is poor, and the accuracy is low, which are its main shortcomings.

As a commonly used temperature sensor product, thermal resistance temperature sensor is widely used in industrial production for temperature measurement in the range of -200℃ to +500℃ due to its stable performance, flexible use, and high reliability. In this case, the low temperature can be measured to 1K (-272°C) and the high temperature can be measured to 1000°C, which basically meets the needs of industrial production.

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