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The development history of rain gauge
As we all know, too much or too little precipitation will affect agricultural production and people's lives to a certain extent, and even bring disasters, so it is particularly important to monitor rainfall. In modern life, as the main tool to monitor the amount of rain, rain gauges play an important role in meteorology, agriculture, water conservancy and other industries. After generations of evolution and development, rain gauges have their current appearance and functions. In the production and life of China, how do people monitor rainfall? Today, I will take you to learn more about the development history of the rain gauge.
China has been based on agriculture since ancient times. As early as the Qin Dynasty over 2,000 years ago, there was a system of reporting rainfall. In the third century BC, the Qin Dynasty stipulated in the 'Field Law' that when crops were growing, the amount of rainfall, floods and droughts and other disasters should be reported to the court in time. There is no uniform standard for early rainfall. People can only report the amount of rainfall and the length of rainfall through intuitive feelings. Such as 'every rain, it will be rain from three days or more' to record the length of precipitation.
The Han Dynasty inherited the Qin system, requiring 'independence of spring, until the beginning of summer, the end of autumn, and the prefecture of rain.' That is, during the entire crop growth period, state and county officials must report rainfall and agricultural production during the agricultural production period. Since the Qin and Han dynasties stipulated the 'shangyuze' system, the rain reporting system began to continue in each dynasty. Although it was to report the amount of rainfall, there has been no suitable measurement tool. Since the Tang and Song Dynasties, people have used some utensils in life, such as basins and cups, to catch rainwater. When rainwater overflows from the basin, it is called 'pouring'. The earliest allusion is the verse in Du Fu's 'Bai Di': 'When the clouds go out in the Baidi City, the rain will turn over in Baidi City.' The heavy rain can only indicate the degree of rain. , There is no way to calculate the size of rain.
After thousands of years of evolution, until the Song Dynasty appeared the earliest rain gauge in the world's cultural history-heaven and earth basin. Although the 'Heaven and Earth Basin' looks very simple today, it laid the foundation for modern rain gauges and played a key role in monitoring rain at that time. Although the 'heaven and earth basin' is just a general water container and not perfect enough, it can still be regarded as the rudimentary form of a rain gauge. As China, where the rainfall reporting system and the rudimentary form of rain gauges first appeared, it should have shined in this aspect of rain gauges. Regrettably, the standard rain gauge developed and promoted by the state does not seem to have appeared in China, and a nationwide observation network has not been established on this basis. At the same time, unlike the stagnant development of Chinese rain gauges, Western rain gauges are now in full swing. In 1695, the British physicist Robert Hook successfully designed the tipping bucket rain gauge. Hook installed a glass funnel on a wooden frame, the lower end of the funnel extended into a larger container, and the rainwater collected in the container was weighed with a scale. This is the earliest tipping bucket rain gauge, and his design concept has been in use today. In 1722, Luke Howard, known as the 'Father of British MeteorologyThe scale of, you can get the amount of rain, saving the trouble of weighing rain. Later, after centuries of continuous improvement by scientists, many other types of rain gauges appeared, and they gradually developed in the direction of diversification of rain gauges. Modern, with the blessing of the Internet, the rain gauge is more intelligent and convenient. At present, the most commonly used is the tipping bucket rain gauge. The tipping bucket rain gauge is composed of a housing, a filter, a rain collector, a funnel, a tipping bucket, a terminal, a leg bracket, a reed tube, and a rain gauge base. Among them, a tipping bucket shaft, a round horizontal bubble, a reed switch bracket and a signal output terminal are installed on the rain gauge base. The internal tipping bucket sleeve is an integrated positioning structure, and the tipping bucket is installed in the bearing through the tipping bucket shaft. There is no need to install the internal structure during installation, and it is convenient and quick to use on site. From pulse to 485 signal output, rainfall can be read directly, without secondary calculation, avoiding manual viewing. From the 'heaven and earth basin' of Qin Jiushao in the Song Dynasty to the modern tipping bucket rain gauge, every advancement of rain measuring equipment has been devoted to a lot of effort and wisdom of the ancestors, and has experienced a long and arduous experience. The process has become an indelible mark in the development of the rain gauge.
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