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The development history of wind speed and direction sensor

by:Rika Sensors     2021-08-30
The development history of wind speed and direction sensor
Wind is a natural phenomenon caused by air movement. Since ancient times, wind has played an important role in people's daily life and production. In the long-term contact with wind, people’s cognition of wind speed and direction has gradually changed from perceptual to rational; from the awe of wind in ancient times, to the development of various wind speed and direction sensors, people have never explored wind before. Stop

As early as the pre-Qin period, people had already created a wind vane-伣 (qìan). The structure of the tower is very simple: a wind pole is set up, and silk and silk are attached to the pole to make a long strip of 'flagSpecial observers are provided to monitor the bell and watch the direction of the flag being blown by the wind to report the wind direction.

In the Western Han Dynasty, people invented the Xiangfeng Bird on the basis of the original '伣'. 'Cast copper phoenix, five feet high, decorated with gold, there are pivots on the top and bottom of the dwelling house, so that it flies toward the wind.' Each Xiangfeng bird has a pivot underneath, which can be inserted in a circular groove to rotate with the wind. The direction the head of the wind bird points is the direction from which the wind blows.

From the Eastern Han Dynasty to the Three Kingdoms period, the material of Xiangfeng Bird was changed from bronze to wood. With the wooden bird wind direction instrument, the materials are easier to obtain, the whole is lighter, and the scope of use is more common than before.

In the Tang Dynasty, people were no longer satisfied with the wind direction measurement. The Tang Dynasty scientist Li Chunfeng (602 AD-670 AD) in his book 'Yisi Zhan·Zhanfeng Distance' based on the wind to the tree Generate ground force to estimate wind speed. 'The leaves move slightly, and the wind speed is about ten miles; the leaves are rustling, and the wind speed travels hundreds of miles per day; the branches sway, two hundred miles; the night falls, three hundred miles; the branches are broken, four hundred miles...' And, according to the sway of the tree The degree creates the level of wind: 'First-level moving leaves, second-level song bars, third-level swinging branches, fourth-level falling leaves, fifth-level folding branches, sixth-level folding branches, seventh-level flying sandstones, eight-level pulling up trees and Root.' plus 'no windThe invention of wind speed level established the standard for people's knowledge of wind speed, and it has been used until modern times.

The instrument for monitoring wind speed and direction has been developed up to now, from the simplest Yahexiang Fengniao to the current complete wind speed and direction detection equipment and system.

Now we have two types of instruments for monitoring wind speed and direction: wind direction and wind speed sensors and ultrasonic wind speed and direction sensors; one of these two types of sensors is mechanical and the other is ultrasonic. With the existence of these two devices, half of the country for monitoring wind speed and direction has been supported.

1. The wind speed and direction sensor includes a wind direction sensor and a wind speed sensor:

1. The wind direction sensor

The wind direction sensor is a resistive wind direction monitor. It adopts a structure similar to a sliding rheostat, marking the maximum and minimum values u200bu200bof the resistance value as 360° and 0° respectively. When the wind vane rotates, the sliding rod of the sliding rheostat will rotate with the wind vane on the top. The different voltage changes generated can calculate the angle or direction of the wind direction; it has high mechanical strength and high hardness, the structure and weight of the equipment have been carefully designed and distributed, the moment of inertia is small, and the response is sensitive; it adopts high-performance bearings and has low rotation resistance. , The measurement is accurate; it has a good anti-electromagnetic interference processing ability.

2. Wind speed sensor

The wind speed sensor adopts the three-cup design concept, uses high-performance imported bearings, has low rotation resistance and accurate measurement; when the wind cup rotates, it drives the coaxial multi-tooth cutter When the optical disc or magnetic rod rotates, a signal proportional to the rotation speed of the wind cup is obtained through the circuit. The signal is counted by a counter, and the actual wind speed value is obtained after conversion; its appearance is small and light, with good anti-electromagnetic interference function; equipment structure and weight After careful design and distribution, the moment of inertia is small and the response is sensitive; the shell is designed with polycarbonate composite material, which has good anti-corrosion, anti-erosion, and anti-exposure characteristics;

2. Ultrasonic wind speed and direction sensor< /p>Ultrasonic wind speed and direction sensor is developed based on the principle of ultrasonic wave. It uses the transmitted sound wave pulse to measure the time difference at the receiving end to calculate the wind speed and direction. The shell of the whole machine is made of high-quality ABS material, light weight, no start-up wind speed limit, zero wind speed work, 360° omnidirectional angle limit, no maintenance and on-site calibration, while measuring and outputting the instantaneous numerical energy and wind direction of the wind speed.

Both wind direction transmitter and wind speed transmitter adopt mechanical structure design and have rotating parts. Therefore, the lowest wind speed is the most starting condition before monitoring. If the wind speed is lower than the starting value, the propeller or wind cannot be driven. When the cup rotates, it cannot be monitored. The opposite is the ultrasonic wind speed and direction sensor. The biggest feature of this device is that there is no wind speed limit at startup, it can work at zero wind speed, and it can monitor and output two data of wind speed and wind direction at the same time.

From the pre-Qin ya and Xiangfeng birds to the modern wind speed and direction sensors, every advancement of the anemometer has devoted a lot of effort and wisdom to the ancestors. It has gone through a long and arduous process and has become a wind speed. An indelible mark in the development of the wind vane.

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