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The development trend of smart temperature sensors

by:Rika Sensors     2021-11-10
The development trend of smart temperature sensors
The temperature sensor is an earlier developed and widely used sensor. From the beginning of the 17th century, Galileo invented the thermometer and hygrometer, people began to measure temperature, and the real sensor that converts temperature into electrical signals is the thermocouple sensor invented by the German physicist Saibe in 1821.

With the continuous development of science and technology, the requirements of measurement and automation technology continue to increase. The development of temperature sensors has roughly gone through the following three stages: traditional discrete temperature sensors (including sensitive components), analog Integrated temperature sensor/controller and intelligent temperature sensor. At present, the new temperature sensor is developing from analog to digital, from integrated to intelligent and networked.

1. Discrete temperature sensor

The thermocouple sensor is a traditional discrete sensor and is the most widely used temperature sensor in industrial measurement. Its working principle is: according to the Seebeck effect in physics, that is, in a circuit composed of two metal wires, if the junctions maintain different temperatures, an electromotive force corresponding to the temperature difference will be generated in the circuit. The thermocouple has simple structure, wide operating temperature range, fast response, accurate measurement, and good reproducibility. It can also measure the temperature of the micro-zone with a fine couple wire and does not require a power supply.

2. Integrated temperature sensor/controller

(1) Analog integrated temperature sensor

The integrated sensor is made of silicon semiconductor integration process, so it is also called silicon sensor or monolithic integrated temperature sensor. The analog integrated temperature sensor came out in the 1980s. It is a dedicated IC that integrates the temperature sensor on a chip and can perform temperature measurement and analog signal output functions. The main features of the analog integrated temperature sensor are single function (only measuring temperature), small temperature measurement error, low price, fast response speed, long transmission distance, small size, micro power consumption, etc., suitable for long-distance temperature measurement and temperature control. Non-linear calibration is required, and the peripheral circuit is simple. It is currently the most common integrated sensor used at home and abroad.

(2) Analog integrated temperature controller

Analog integrated temperature controller mainly includes temperature control switch and programmable temperature controller. Some enhanced integrated temperature controllers also include A/D converters and solidified programs, which have some similarities with smart temperature sensors. But it is a self-contained system and is not under the control of the microprocessor when it works. This is the main difference between the two.

Three, intelligent temperature sensor

The intelligent temperature sensor (also known as the digital temperature sensor) came out in the mid-1990s. It is the crystallization of microelectronics technology, computer technology and automatic test technology (ATE). At present, a variety of intelligent temperature sensor series products have been developed internationally. The intelligent temperature sensor contains temperature sensor, A/D converter, signal processor, memory (or register) and interface circuit. Some products also come with multiplexers, central controller (CPU), random access memory (RAM) and read-only memory (ROM). The characteristic of the intelligent temperature sensor is that it can output temperature data and related temperature control variables, and adapt to various microcontrollers (MCU); and it implements the test function through software on the basis of hardware, and its degree of intelligence also depends on Based on the level of software development.

After entering the 21st century, smart temperature sensors are rapidly moving towards high-tech directions such as high precision, multi-function, bus standardization, high reliability and safety, the development of virtual sensors and network sensors, and the development of single-chip temperature measurement systems. develop. With the introduction of a series of policies and measures that are conducive to the development of the temperature sensor industry, the temperature sensor industry will usher in huge development opportunities in the future.

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