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The Principle and Application of Ultrasonic Wind Speed u200bu200band Direction Sensor for Measuring Velocity

by:Rika Sensors     2021-08-22
The Principle and Application of Ultrasonic Wind Speed u200bu200band Direction Sensor for Measuring Velocity
Wind vector refers to wind speed and direction, and is one of the basic monitoring elements in meteorological monitoring.

With the development of Internet of Things technology and sensor technology, modern weather stations have become more and more intelligent, and are gradually developing towards unmanned all-day weather stations. Therefore, modern weather stations urgently need a wind speed and direction sensor with high accuracy and maintenance-free.

Traditional mechanical wind speed and direction sensors have rotating parts, which are prone to wear. The mechanical structure may be damaged by bad weather. Sand dust and salt spray can also cause corrosion. At the same time, the mechanical anemometer still has the starting wind speed due to the existence of friction. The wind speed lower than the starting value will not be able to drive the propeller or the wind cup to rotate. Therefore, the breeze mechanical anemometer that is lower than the starting wind speed will not be able to measure. In order to overcome the inherent shortcomings of the traditional wind cup type anemometer, a new type of ultrasonic anemometer came into being.

Ultrasonic wind speed and direction sensors have been widely used in industrial fields and scientific research due to their fast response, high measurement accuracy, and easy maintenance and use. The ultrasonic wind speed and direction sensor mainly uses the ultrasonic frequency difference emitted by four vertically placed ultrasonic sensors to calculate the wind speed and wind direction, and outputs the wind speed (m/s) and wind direction (°) through the sensor.

Three ultrasonic velocity measurement methods

Ultrasonic wind velocity measurement mainly includes time difference method, frequency difference method, phase difference method and correlation method.

Time difference method

The time difference method is very common, and its principle is: in calm air, the propagation speed of sound waves will be changed by the air flow in the direction of the wind. If the wind direction and the propagation direction of the sound wave are the same, the propagation speed of the sound wave will be increased, and vice versa, the speed of the sound wave will be reduced.

When the ultrasonic wave propagates in the air, there is a speed difference between the downwind and the upwind direction. When it propagates a fixed distance, this speed difference reflects a time difference, and this time difference has a linear relationship with the wind speed to be measured. Therefore, the ultrasonic wind speed and direction sensor emits ultrasonic waves sequentially at a fixed frequency, and measures the arrival time of ultrasonic waves in two directions, thereby obtaining the propagation speed of the downwind and the upwind, and the wind speed value can be obtained after processing and conversion.

Frequency difference method

The frequency difference method is a direct method with multiple cycles. The accuracy of this method is twice the number of cycles of the direct time difference method. It is suitable for medium and small diameter pipelines. The advantage is high accuracy and less influence on temperature. The disadvantage is that the work is unstable due to environmental influences.

Phase difference method

The phase difference method converts wind speed through time difference into phase for measurement.

Problems with ultrasonic wind speed and direction sensor

Wind direction angle transient problem: When analyzing the wind direction signal measured by the two-dimensional ultrasonic wind speed and wind direction sensor, the wind direction angle transient phenomenon is common in the wind direction data. The wind direction angle fluctuates extremely sharply and greatly within a short period of time. The wind direction signal fluctuation characteristics during the wind direction angle transient period are obviously different from other periods. Only by deeply understanding the causes of the wind direction angle transient phenomenon can we judge whether this phenomenon will affect the subsequent wind direction signal fluctuation analysis. If there is an adverse effect, Appropriate methods should also be adopted to make reasonable corrections to the wind direction signal.

Ultrasonic wind speed and direction sensors are currently widely used in power safety monitoring, bridges and tunnels, marine ship urban environmental monitoring, road safety and other fields. The many advantages of ultrasonic anemometer make it more and more widely used, and it will occupy the leading position of wind speed measuring device in the future.



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